The earliest Western alchemists, who lived in the first centuries of the common era, invented chemical apparatus. The bain-marie , or water bath is named for Mary the Jewess . Her work also gives the first descriptions of the tribikos and kerotakis.  Cleopatra the Alchemist described furnaces and has been credited with the invention of the alembic .  Later, the experimental framework established by Jabir ibn Hayyan influenced alchemists as the discipline migrated through the Islamic world , then to Europe in the twelfth century.
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